Prefiltering

Picture

 Photo by the author.

Picture

Photo by the author.  

Many cichlids are primarily bottom dwellers, venturing up into the water column on rare occasions. This increases the potential for stirring up detritus and other elements that collect on the substrate. Aquarists who maintain tanks with driftwood and/or live plants know all too well how quickly solid matter can accumulate. Regular substrate vacuuming when performing water changes will reduce the amount of detritus available to get stirred up. Since I primarily keep dwarf cichlids, I generally don’t have a problem with waste and other organic material getting kicked up into the water column, where the filter intakes are most likely to draw it in. However, I still prefilter all of my filters.

What is prefiltering? Basically, it’s a type of mechanical filtration that precedes the regular filter media. Most filters utilize an intake tube strainer on the end of the intake that primarily blocks the larger pieces of debris from reaching the filter media. By prefiltering, you can stop all but the finest particulate matter, regardless of the type of filter you employ (HOB, canister, internal, sump). Consequently, this can reduce the frequency of cleaning your primary filter, prevent items from clogging up the primary filter, and add more surface area for biological filtration.

The simplest and most cost efficient method of prefiltering is to use a proper fitting sponge over the intake. The only real drawback is the potential reduction in water flow to the primary filter, but I’ve found this is only a problem with higher flow filters when using prefilter sponges that are especially dense. Above are some photos of various sponges I use. You can pick these up at your local aquarium store or even order online.

For the cichlid beginner

So you’ve been keeping fish for a while and want to try your hand at cichlids but you’re not sure what to get? No worries. You can always Google something like “beginner cichlids” or similar. First, however, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with this exciting family of fish. There is myriad information about cichlids in books, trade publications, websites, etc. However, If you’re a beginner and would welcome some advice, read on.

Tank sizes: Small tanks should only be used for small cichlids. Many species of cichlids get quite large, ~7″ plus. Don’t purchase juvenile cichlids that will reach 6-7″ at maturity if your tank is 10 gallons. That’s cruel not to mention irresponsible. My rule of thumb is 15-20 gallons of water per 1″ of fish, at maturity. Thus a full grown fish of 7″ should have, at minimum, 105-140 gallons of water. That rule doesn’t entirely scale, but I think it’s a responsible way to plan, especially for a beginner. Nothing is more disheartening than seeing a full grown Oscar languishing in a 20-30 gallon tank, though many irresponsible hobbyists do it. Also consider how many cichlids you intend to house in a single tank. You can often keep multiple cichlids of the same size in a single tank. 

In addition, be cognizant of tank dimensions and the species you’re keeping. Go with a larger tank footprint, when possible. Footprint = length x width. For example, a 33g long tank has the same footprint as a 55 g tank. Many cichlids will spend the vast majority of their time around the bottom of the tank, so the extra volume of a tank with a greater height might be more aesthetically pleasing than practical. 

Water parameters: Not all cichlids (large or small) are suitable for any water. In other words, not all water is equal. Tap water in Boise, ID isn’t the same tap water as Atlanta, GA. The liquid environment in which fish live is as varied as land and temperature is for mammals. Wolverines don’t naturally thrive in Arizona. Very few cichlids are native to the US. In fact, most are endemic to Africa and South/Central America, and many species will only thrive within specific water parameters. But don’t fret about this. There are many beginner cichlids that will do well in most municipal water. Also, many cichlids available in the hobby are domestically bred, where generation breeding may reduce the dependency on native water parameters or at least create a wider tolerance range.

Aggression: Almost all cichlids are aggressive, especially toward conspecifics (their own species). This aggression can be mitigated in several ways, not the least of which is providing them with plenty of space. Most cichlids are territorial, meaning they set-up shop in a pretty defined space that they call their own in which trespassers are treated unkindly. Some of the smaller species don’t enforce a large territory, which means more than one can co-exist in a reasonably small tank. You’ve probably seen some tanks in restaurants and stores that are teaming with cichlids. Housing a large number of these fish in a single tank limits territory claims and distributes aggression, which often prevents a single fish from getting bullied. There are other mitigating solutions, but we’ll save those for another day.

Hopefully, this information is useful and will aid your decision making as you enter the fabulous world of cichlids!

 

Local support

Your support of the aquarium hobby comes in many flavors, not just financial. However, as you prepare to purchase the items you need, whether livestock or supplies, please consider patronizing your local aquarium store. Purchasing from brick and mortar stores provides local jobs, local taxes, and a place for you to personally engage with fellow hobbyists and ask questions. Obviously, not everyone lives within driving distance of an aquarium or supply house. For this reason, among others, online retail has its place, and I utilize it myself. However, when I need something I think first about supporting local establishments, places where I’ve received valuable advice and made many friends. So I encourage you to do the same when you can.